Category Archives: American history

Autumn Reading

Autumn 15

While autumn is not officially over yet, December always seems like winter to me so here is my reading review from autumn.
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This season I’m introducing a book review rating system. On my scale, an average book would get three scopes; a good book, four; and only the extraordinary book gets five scopes. I probably will not rate translations because I don’t feel qualified to evaluate them.

Books

Paul Kelton. Epidemics and Enslavement: Biological Catastrophes in the Native Southeast, 1492-1715. University of Arizona Press, 2007.   microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)

Catherine Cameron, Paul Kelton, and Alan Swedlund, eds. Beyond Germs: Native Depopulation in North America. U of Arizona Press, 2015. microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)

Pseudo-Dionysius of Tel-Mahre: Chronicle, Part III edited by Withold Witakowski, Liverpool University Press, 1997. (includes the largest section of John of Ephesus’ Church History/History of the Plague)

Zlata Blažina Tomic and Vesna Blažina  Expelling the Plague: The Health Office and the Implementation of Quarantine in Dubrovnik, 1377-1533. McGill-Queens University Press, 2015.microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)

Dorothy Crawford. Deadly Companions: How Microbes Shaped Our History. Oxford University Press, 2007. microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)

Susan Mattern. The Prince of Medicine: Galen in the Roman Empire. Oxford University Press, 2013. microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)

Papers

Meier, D. (2004). Man and environment in the marsh area of Schleswig–Holstein from Roman until late Medieval times. Quaternary International, 112(1), 55–69. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1040-6182(03)00065-X

 

Stanley, J.-D., Bernasconi, M. P., & Jorstad, T. F. (2008). Pelusium, an Ancient Port Fortress on Egypt’s Nile Delta Coast: Its Evolving Environmental Setting from Foundation to Demise. Journal of Coastal Research, 242, 451–462. http://doi.org/10.2112/07A-0021.1

Schats, R. (2015). Malaise and mosquitos: osteoarchaeological evidence for malaria in the medieval Netherlands. Analecta Praehistoricaleidensia, 45, 133–140.

MacMaster, T. J. (2015). “Not With a Bang?” The Economics of Trade and the End of Byzantine North Africa. In M. Di Rodi, P. Frankopan, M. Lau, & C. Franchi (Eds.), Landscapes of Power: Selected Papers From the XV Oxford University Byzantine Society International Graduate Conference (pp. 73–91).

SHWARTZ, L. (2013). Gargano Comes to Rome: Castel Sant“Angelo”s Historical Origins. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 64(03), 453–475. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0022046912001704 (Blogged about here: St Michael, the Plague and Castel Sant’ Angelo,  in 2012 after his Kalamazoo talk. I just found in in print much as I remembered in the blog post.)

Rasmussen, S., Allentoft, M. E., Nielsen, K., Orlando, L., Sikora, M., Sjögren, K.-G., et al. (2015). Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago. Cell, 163(3), 571–582. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.009 (See the previous post on this blog!)

Sun, Y.-C., Jarrett, C. O., Bosio, C. F., & Hinnebusch, B. J. (2014). Retracing the Evolutionary Path that Led to Flea-Borne Transmission of Yersinia pestis. Cell Host and Microbe, 15(5), 578–586. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2014.04.003

McCormick, M. (2015). Tracking mass death during the fall of Rome’s empire (I). Journal of Roman Archaeology, 28, 325–357.

Daniel Melleno. (2014) North Sea Networks: Trade and Communication from the Seventh to the Tenth Century. Comitatus. 45:65-90.

microscope23 (1)Icon made by Freepik from www.flaticon.com

Challenging Virgin Soil Epidemic Assumptions 

The depopulation of Native Americans during the 16th to 18th centuries, one result of the ‘Columbian Exchange’, has been held up as the ultimate example of virgin soil epidemics. The emphasis put on the ‘virginity’ of the native population, bordering on biological determinism, has absolved the colonial powers of a multitude of sins. Some archaeologists and historians of early North America have begun to challenge the emphasis placed on the virulence of the new pathogens in the native population without minimizing the depopulation itself. They have uncovered multiple additional factors that led to such a drastic loss of native Americans.

Chiaves la florida, 1584
Chiaves la florida, 1584

I recently finished Paul Kelton’s Epidemics and Enslavement: Biological Catastrophes in the Native Southeast, 1492-1715 (2007) and it was illuminating. He is covering the area of the modern Carolinas, Georgia, northern Florida, and Alabama and contiguous frontiers. This area was colonized by the Spanish, English and the French toward the Mississippi. These infant colonies set off an extensive reorganization of native tribes as trade goods shifted the balance of power throughout the region.
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The colonial powers were initially interested in resource extraction over building large colonies. This region had only two easily exploitable resources — deer skins and slaves. This sparked a period of nearly constant intra-tribal warfare and the creation of confederations for protection.

Kelton shows that native depopulation did not occur solely due to epidemics, but due to a set of actions taken by the colonial powers primarily in Carolina. In the first century of the English colonies, native tribes became dependent upon trade good especially guns, powder and shot that were paid for with deer skins and captives. Moreover, the English wanted primarily women and children as captives. Eventually this led to a gender imbalance in most tribes preyed upon for captives. This made it nearly impossible for the tribes to recover from severe epidemics. Having enough women of reproductive age is absolutely necessary for population recovery after an epidemic or any other sudden population loss.

Kelton does not look at human genetic analyses but this makes me think of population analyses in Central and South America where native mtDNA lineages (via matrilineal only) are common but native Y chromosomes are very rare. Many female captives would become wives to immigrant men and their offspring are advantaged over all North American native children. Kelton never really explores the destination of native captives/slaves but implies that many went to markets outside of the English colonies. He implies that it was primarily when native captives were exhausted that Carolina turns to more African slaves.

As the tribes disintegrated from the stresses of warfare and slave raiding, they reorganized into the confederations we are more familiar with, like the Cherokee, Creeks, and Choctaw. None of the groups existed before the colonial period.  In the process of reformation many villages were abandoned. They resettled in a tighter configurations and some built palisades for the first time. In the past many of these settlements were claimed to have been depopulated by epidemics.

Natives in the south-east were primarily farmers who supplemented their diet with venison, fish and other salvaged sources of protein. Without domestic animals for protein, their nutrition was maintained by a precarious balance of crops liable to be disrupted by climate and social disruption. Evasion of slave raiding parties made it difficult to grow crops (most maize) and gather supplementary wild food (deer, fish, oysters, fruit/berries etc). Famine coupled with enteric disease has to be a significant factor in any explanation of native depopulation.  Even before 1492, native populations showed signs of nutritional stress and short lifespans, sometimes with average lifespans in the low twenties.

I’ve focused on non-epidemics causes of depopulation so far because this was the newest material to me. Kelton postulates that malaria was the first epidemic disease to spread among the native population. Malaria is likely to have become entrenched in wetlands early, but how quickly it spread is more questionable and he seems to minimize its demographic impact.  From my own research on the mid-Mississippi valley, malaria makes its first appearance in the records with the arrival of the English even though the French and Spanish had been in the valley long before.

Smallpox is generally considered the most dangerous pathogen of the Columbian Exchange. Kelton acknowledges that smallpox first came to the Spanish missions in Florida and Georgia, but asserts that these epidemics were limited to the mission system. Native North Americans did not have the population density or extensive trade networks found in Mexico and further south. He shows that smallpox (and perhaps measles) did not begin to spread between tribal groups at distance from the colonial settlements until the English facilitated native enslavement system, always done through native partners, developed. By the mid-18th century, native tribes stopped cooperating with the British to sell captives creating a more direct confrontation between the European colonies and all native groups, and increasing the importation of African slaves.

Supposed virgin soil epidemics have been an attractive explanation for demographic collapses in part because it comparatively simple, absolving humans of more responsibility. Humans are portrayed as being victims of biology. Finding other causes does not clear new pathogens of a significant role in native depopulation. Epidemics remain an integral piece of the puzzle, but only a piece.

Reference: Paul Kelton, Epidemics and Enslavement: Biological Catastrophe in the Native Southeast, 1492-1715. Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.

Capturing Mid-Twentieth Century Medicine in Art

I’ve been reading some history of medicine and anthropology on re-emerging infectious disease lately. The label, ‘re-emerging’ infectious disease, is a response to the mid-20th century attitudes when eradication was the goal for many, if not most, pathogens.  The eradication of smallpox will stand out all the more awesome because we now know it will be a rarity. Polio is still so close, and yet so far. These pathogens are ‘re-emerging’ because they were thought to be beat, conquered or at the very least managed. It was an age of confidence, some might say over confidence.

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This picture is floating around the internet. I don’t know where it originally came from or where this sculpture is located. It just seems to typify that era so well. The buff man of medicine holding back death itself. I guess its supposed to portray strength and confidence. This era is foreign enough to me that it’s just off-putting, such bravado and over-confidence. I doubt that few of us who became professionals in the era of HIV, much less SARS or ebola or the ‘re-emergence’ of old foes like pandemic influenza,  cholera and plague can understand the level of confidence that prevailed in the mid-20th century.

Does anyone know more about this sculpture or where it came from? It seems somehow familiar to something I seen in St. Louis, but not the figure of death. It looks like the 1950s or 1960s to me?

Update: Thanks to the wonder of twitter, Heather Battles found it for me. It’s at the Fulton County Health Services, 99 Jesse Hill, Jr. Drive, SE Atlanta, GA 303034 google map . She found out the artist’s name, Julian Hoke Harris.