Category Archives: One Health

Ötzi’s Lyme Disease in Context

One of the ancient DNA finds that continues to intrigue me is the discovery of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, in Ötzi the 5300-year-old ice mummy from the Italian Alps. As far as I know, this is the only finding of B. burgdorferi in ancient remains of any date.  I discussed the initial report of these findings back in the summer of 2012. 


The more we learn about Ötzi’s environment and lifestyle, the less mysterious it seems. There are no signs of human habitation or land management in these high Alpine regions. Indicators of deforestation, farming, and pasture maintenance are lacking from lake sediment and pollen studies. Festi, Putzer and Oeggl (2013) found the first signs of human land management in the Ötztal Alps to began about 1000 years after Ötzi’s time. During the Copper Age, subsistence occupation of the valley floor was sufficient for the population of Ötzi’s time. They did minimal farming, and breeding of caprines (sheep, goats, and ibex). Festi, Putzer and Oeggl (2013) note that Ötzi’s mummy is the only piece of evidence for humans that high in the Otztal Alps before the Bronze Age.

Before Ötzi’s time, landscape management in the Mesolithic was to support red deer herds that were “in a state of semi-domestication by means of active hunting” (Rollo et al, 2002). (Native Americans managed deer populations in similar ways by promoting a landscape where deer thrive near their hunting grounds.) The importance of deer to Ötzi is underscored by everything about him from the red deer meat in his stomach to the roe deerskin that made up his quiver and antler in some of his tools (Rollo et al, 2012). Two different species of deer have been confirmed by genetic analysis.  Most of his clothing was made of sheep and goat skins (O’Sullivan et al, 2016).

The agent of Lyme disease, B. burgdorferi, is transmitted primarily by the tick Ixodes ricinus, common on deer, sheep, cattle, humans and dogs as adults and feed on rodents and small mammals as nymphs. Ticks often thrive at the forest edge where there are grasses for them to climb up to catch passing deer. It seems likely that they would also thrive in along upland forest edges as well. Ixodes ricinus is found throughout the Alps.  It is feasible that Lyme disease was a greater problem for humans when we relied on deer as a staple food.

Ötzi’s B. burgdorferi has yet to be confirmed by a second group. Interestingly, a recent study of B. burgdorferi’s phylogeny suggests that it originated in Europe and later spread to ‘post-Columbian’ North America (Margos et al, 2008). Although Lyme disease was only recognized in the 20th century, it is apparently an ancient disease caused by multiple Borrelia species. And Ötzi’s sequence has not been added to any phylogeny I’ve found, odd. Overlooked, or a problematic sequence?


Festi, D., Putzer, A., & Oeggl, K. (2013). Mid and late Holocene land-use changes in the Otztal Alps, territory of the Neolithic Iceman “Otzi”. Quaternary International, 353, 1–18.

Margos, G., Gatewood, A. G., Aanensen, D. M., Hanincová, K., Terekhova, D., Vollmer, S. A., et al. (2008). MLST of housekeeping genes captures geographic population structure and suggests a European origin of Borrelia burgdorferi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(25), 8730–8735.

O’Sullivan, N. J., Teasdale, M. D., Mattiangeli, V., Maixner, F., Pinhasi, R., Bradley, D. G., & Zink, A. (2016). A whole mitochondria analysis of the Tyrolean Iceman’s leather provides insights into the animal sources of Copper Age clothing. Scientific Reports, 6, 1–9.

Rollo, F., Ubaldi, M., Ermini, L., & Marota, I. (2002). Otzi’s last meals: DNA analysis of the intestinal content of the Neolithic glacier mummy from the Alps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(20), 12594–12599.

El Niño and Possibly New World Primates Contributed to Zika Explosion

by Michelle Ziegler

The explosion of Zika-related birth defects this past year came out of the blue. Zika has been known since the 1940s but was seen as a mild dengue-like illness (Fauci & Morens, 2016). Leaving aside how and why microcephaly has appeared so dramatically, it is undeniable that Zika’s emergence and transmission in the Americas have been unusually rapid and extensive.

Aedes aegypti from Tanzania (Source: Muhammad Mahdi Karim, 2009, GNU Free Documentation License)

Two papers published in December focusing on the Aedes mosquito vectors begin to shed light on how Zika was able to be established so quickly and pervasively. Zika utilizes the same tropical mosquito Aedes aegypti as dengue; it was once known as the yellow fever mosquito. It is also the vector of the chikungunya virus.

As first observed in West Africa many years ago, Zika epidemics followed a chikungunya epidemic by a couple years. Chikungunya was the emerging infectious disease of 2013, the year that Zika is believed to have arrived in South America (Fauci & Morens, 2016). Unrecognized by public health workers at the time, a Chikungunya epidemic was simultaneously chugging along under the radar in at least Salvador, the capital of the Bahai state of Brazil, during the peak of Zika epidemic of 2015 (Cardoso et al, 2017).

El Niño 2015-2016

In the first study by Cyril Caminade and colleagues at the University of Liverpool modeled Zika transmission in the two critical vector species in the Americas, the tropical Aedes aegypti found primarily in South America and the temperate Aedes albopictus found in the southern United States. It is thought that Zika transmits better from A. aegytpi but more research is needed to fully understand the differences. They developed a two vector, one host model where the climate is a variable to compare the effect of climate patterns on Zika transmission. They ran these simulations for each vector individually and together against historic climate data sets.

When they compared the worldwide distribution of the vectors and climate, they were able to show that all of the countries where Zika has been reported were predicted in their model. Ominously, South America was the most friendly region in the world for Zika (Caminade et al, 2016). The model for Zika produced a map that correlates extremely well with the global distribution of dengue. Due to the overlap of A. aegypti and A. albopictus territory, they found a high probability that Zika would transmit well in most of the southern United States.

Risk of Zika transmission based on their models A. winter of 2015-2016 B. Risk over the last 50 years. (Caminade et al, 2016)

The global climate anomaly known as El Niño is known to impact mosquito-transmitted diseases, so they had a particular interest in comparing the 2015-2016 El Niño to historic data sets. The map shows the predicted Ro (reproduction number) for Zika around the world in 2015-2016  and in the bar graph compared to the last 50 years. The conditions for Zika were the best for the last 50 years. Other hot spots that did not experience a Zika epidemic, like India, did have a record year for dengue. They also note that the African hot spot for ideal transmission conditions corresponds and to Angola where there was a Yellow Fever outbreak. In short, it was a very good year for Andes aegypti! And now, as of January 2017, Yellow Fever had added to their misery in a Brazil.

A Sylvatic Reservoir? 

Understanding if Zika will establish a sylvatic reservoir in South America is of vital importance for projections and mitigation of future Zika epidemics in Brazil and elsewhere in South America. Zika was initially detected in a sentinel monkey in Uganda and has since been detected in a wide variety of smaller primates in Africa and Asia. Using a model originally proposed for dengue they were able to show that primates with rapid birth rates and short lifespans are ideal for establishing sylvatic Zika. In primates with short life span, five years or less, and rapid birth rates, the establishment of a sylvatic reservoir is “nearly assured” (Althouse et al, 2016). They predict that a primate population as small as 6,000 members with 10,000 mosquitoes could support a sylvatic reservoir (Althouse et al, 2016). Ironically, since infection rate is dependent upon bites per primate, a small primate population with a large mosquito population is better at maintaining the reservoir than a large primate population. Old World monkeys like the African Green Monkey, a known African host of Zika, are already established in free-living troops in South American forests.  While A. aegypti favors human environments, A. albopictus prefers forested environments and has been spreading in Brazil.  It could be a prime candidate for a bridging vector between a sylvatic and domestic Zika cycle. Studies on Zika vulnerability and incidence in all South American primates has to be a priority. Our ability to manage Zika in the future depends on it.


Caminade, C., Turner, J., Metelmann, S., Hesson, J. C., Blagrove, M. S. C., Solomon, T., et al. (2016). Global risk model for vector-borne transmission of Zika virus reveals the role of El Niño 2015. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 201614303–28.

Cardoso, C. W., Kikuti, M., Prates, A. P. P. B., Paploski, I. A. D., Tauro, L. B., Silva, M. M. O., et al. (2017). Unrecognized Emergence of Chikungunya Virus during a Zika Virus Outbreak in Salvador, Brazil. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(1), e0005334–8.

Althouse, B. M., Vasilakis, N., Sall, A. A., Diallo, M., Weaver, S. C., & Hanley, K. A. (2016). Potential for Zika Virus to Establish a Sylvatic Transmission Cycle in the Americas. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10(12), e0005055–11.

Fauci, A. S., & Morens, D. M. (2016). Zika virus in the Americas—yet another arbovirus threat. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(7), 601–604.

Looking back on the autumn


This fall was quite the chaotic jumble — not all bad. One project successfully completed. A door closed but I think another better one may be opening. Somehow in the midst of all this I managed to do a little reading, so here is what that stood out for the fall (and early winter).

My publications

Ziegler, M. (2016) Landscapes of DiseaseLandscapes, 17.2. 99-107. An introduction to the concept of ‘landscapes of disease’ and the articles in the issue. (Open access)

Ziegler, M. (2016) Malarial Landscapes in Late Antique Rome and the Tiber Valley  Landscapes, 17.2: 139-155.


  • Yong, Ed. (2016) I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life. Ecco.  microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)
  • Holland, John. (2014) Complexity: A Short Introduction. OUP microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)
  • Bronton, Jerry (2004) The Renaissance: A Short Introduction. OUP. microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)
  • Tim Clarkson (2016) Scotland’s Merlin: A Medieval Legend and It’s Dark Age Origins. John Donald/Birlinn.      microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)
  • Hamerow, Helena. (2012) Rural Settlements and Society in Anglo-Saxon England. OUP. microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)microscope23 (1)


  • Arnold, E. F. (2017). Rivers of Risk and Redemption in Gregory of Tours’ Writings. Speculum, 92(1), 117–143.
  • Arnold, E. F. (2014). Fluid Identities: Poetry and the Navigation of Mixed Ethnicities in Late Antique Gaul. Ecozon@, 1–19.
  • Bahl, J., Pham, T. T., Hill, N. J., Hussein, I. T. M., Ma, E. J., Easterday, B. C., et al. (2016). Ecosystem Interactions Underlie the Spread of Avian Influenza A Viruses with Pandemic Potential. PLoS Pathogens, 12(5), e1005620–20.
  • Carmichael, A. G., & Silverstein, A. M. (1987). Smallpox in Europe before the seventeenth century: virulent killer or benign disease? Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 42(2), 147–168.

  • Duggan, A. T., Perdomo, M. F., Piombino-Mascali, D., Marciniak, S., Poinar, D., Emery, M. V., et al. (2016). 17th Century Variola Virus Reveals the Recent History of Smallpox. Current Biology, 1–7.
  • Fauci, A. S., & Morens, D. M. (2016). Zika virus in the Americas—yet another arbovirus threat. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(7), 601–604.

  • Jones, L. (2016). The Diseased Landscape: Medieval and Early Modern Plaguescapes. Landscapes, 17(2), 108–123.
  • Marciniak, S., Prowse, T. L., Herring, D. A., Klunk, J., Kuch, M., Duggan, A. T., et al. (2016). Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 1st–2nd century CE southern Italy. Current Biology, 26(23), R1220–R1222.
  • Slavin, P. (2016). Epizootic Landscapes: Sheep Scab and Regional Environment in England in 1279–1280. Landscapes, 17(2), 156–170.
  • Valtuena, A. A., Mittnik, A., Massy, K., Allmae, R., Daubaras, M., Jankauskas, R., et al. (2016). The Stone Age Plague: 1000 years of Persistence in Eurasia. BioRxiv Preprint, 28.
  • Walsh, M. G., Amstislavski, P., Greene, A., & Haseeb, M. A. (2016). The Landscape Epidemiology of Seasonal Clustering of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Domestic Poultry in Africa, Europe and Asia. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 1–14.
  • Whittemore, K., Tate, A., Illescas, A., & Saffa, A. (2017). Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission. Emerging Infectious ….

  • Yue, R. P. H., Lee, H. F., & Wu, C. Y. H. (2016). Navigable rivers facilitated the spread and recurrence of plague in pre-industrial Europe. Scientific Reports, 1–8.