Category Archives: climate

Medieval Historians Taking Genomics into Account

At the International Congress on Medieval Studies at Kalamazoo (Kzoo) last month, I couldn’t help feeling that we have reached a turning point. I went to four sessions that engaged in genomics, human and/or bacterial, in some way. Granted, these are a tiny proportion of the 500+ sessions offered, but I have learned that if you can string together so many sessions on any topic related to your work, it’s a really good Congress.

Before and After 1348: Prelude and Consequences of the Black Death session, Kalamazoo, 2017. Pictured: Monica Green and Robert Hymes (Photo: Nukhet Varlik, used with permission)

The tone was set in the very first session when Philip Slavin brought up human epigenetics in his discussion of 14th-century famine. This was followed the next day with three sessions on the Black Death and 14th-century crisis. The two Contagions society sessions went very well. Carenza Lewis talked about her ceramics landscape survey that showed how deep the 14th-century demographic loss actually was. Fabian Crespo introduced the audience to the human immune landscape and how it can be fruitfully approached (including by epigenetics).  I will post on the roundtable on Bruce Campbell’s The Great Transition later this summer. The third plague session, Before and After 1348,  organized by Monica Green focused on Asia and generated a vigorous discussion.   I also attended a fifth session that focused on more traditional biological anthropology, ie. mostly osteology.

This turn hasn’t come all of a sudden. Historians began paying more attention to bacterial genomics a little over a decade ago when plague aDNA first hit the news. Michael McCormick, Lester Little, and Monica Green have all been instrumental in bringing science to the attention of historians. Three edited volumes stand out for putting genomics in front of historians: Lester Little’s Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541-750 (2007), Linda Clark and Carol Rawcliffe’s Society in the Age of Plague (2013), and Monica Green’s Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World: Rethinking the Black Death* (2015).

On the other hand, scientists have also edited collections of papers that should make the science more accessible to historians. Didier Raoult and Michel Drancourt have edited two volumes, Paleomicrobiology (2008) and Paleomicrobiology of Humans (2017). Ruifu Yang and Andrey Anisimov edited a more technical volume, Yersinia pestis: Retrospective and Perspective (2016) that should summarize the state of the science  (as of 2016) for more advanced readers in the humanities.

Of the monographs, the historian’s usual primary venue,  books addressing genomics or using genomics as a springboard are limited. With at least three appearing in 2016 by Nükhet Varlik, Ole Benedictow, and Bruce Campbell, this should change soon. At this point, I should mention that genomics is already becoming useful to historians of other diseases, especially leprosy and tuberculosis. Historians are also becoming reinvigorated to provide context for plague and other diseases that may be of interest to geneticists and biological anthropologists. Varlik’s edited collected Plague and Contagion in the Islamic Mediterranean  (2017) is the most recent to provide context for a variety of diseases in an understudied area.

*Green’s volume was first published as a double inaugural issue of the journal The Medieval Globe and then published as a hardback book by ARC Medieval Press.

Landscapes of Disease Themed Issue

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For the last couple years, I have been writing about a landscape-based approach to the study of infectious disease in general and historic epidemics in particular. When I first wrote about Lambin et al.’s now classic paper “Pathogenic landscapes” nearly three years ago, I did not know then that it would be so influential in my thinking or that the Medieval Congress sessions would be so successful. In the fall of 2014, Graham Fairclough and I began talking about ways that this first congress session could be represented in the journal he edits, Landscapes. This issue is a departure from their usual approach to landscape studies so I would like to thank Graham Fairclough for entrusting me with a whole issue. It has been a challenge for both of us, and I am proud of our product.

This issue represents the wide variety of studies that can be done all contributing to an understanding of past landscapes of disease. One of the reasons why I like the phrase landscape of disease, rather than simply landscape epidemiology, is that it opens up the array of disciplines that can be involved. In the study of diseases of the past, humanistic approaches can be as valuable as scientific methods. Both are required to build a reasonably coherent reconstruction of the past. Science and the humanities need to act as a check and balance on each other, hopefully in a supportive and collegial way.

The issue was published online a couple days ago. Accessing the journal through your library will register interest in the journal with both your library and the publisher, and would be appreciated. By now the authors should (or will soon) have their codes for their free e-copies if you do not have access otherwise.

Table of Contents

Landscapes of Disease by Michelle Ziegler. An introduction to the concept of ‘landscapes of disease’ and the articles in the issue. (Open access)

The Diseased Landscape: Medieval and Early Modern Plaguescapes by Lori Jones

The Influence of Regional Landscapes on Early Medieval Health (c. 400-1200 A.D.): Evidence from Irish Human Skeletal Remains by Mara Tesorieri

Malarial Landscapes in Late Antique Rome and the Tiber Valley by Michelle Ziegler

Epizootic Landscapes: Sheep Scab and Regional Environment in England in 1279-1280 by Philip Slavin

Plague, Demographic Upheaval and Civilisational Decline: Ibn Khaldūn and Muḥammed al-Shaqūrī on the Black Death in North Africa and Islamic Spain by Russell Hopley

plus seven book reviews. Enjoy!


Lambin, E. F., Tran, A., Vanwambeke, S. O., Linard, C., & Soti, V. (2010). Pathogenic landscapes: Interactions between land, people, disease vectors, and their animal hosts. International Journal of Health Geographics, 9(1), 54.

A winter’s worth of work

Its well into spring now and my blogging has perhaps hit an all time low. I have been working on a project that I will write about more later this year. I’ve been reading a lot about environmental history, not the usual material for this blog. Some of it is listed below. It’s a sample of the kind of thing that I need to be read to understand disease in the past. I think it will be worth it eventually even if pollen diagrams and geology diagrams are not very exciting. 

I do have quite a few ideas for new posts, so I will be back…soon. 

A sampling of some of my recent reading:

Büntgen, U., Myglan, V. S., Ljungqvist, F. C., McCormick, M., Di Cosmo, N., Sigl, M., et al. (2016). Cooling and societal change during the Late Antique Little Ice Age from 536 to around 660 AD. Nature Geoscience, 1–7.

Mitchell, P. D. (2015). Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment. Advances in Parasitology (Vol. 90, pp. 389–420). Elsevier Ltd.

Mitchell, P. D. (2016). Human parasites in the Roman World: health consequences of conquering an empire. Parasitology, 1–11.

Brogolio, G.P. 2015. Flooding in Northern Italy during the Early Middle Ages: resilience and adaption, in Post-Classical Archaeologies. 5: 47-68.

Galassi FM, Bianucci, R., Gorini, G., Giacomo M. Paganotti. G.M., Habicht, M.E., and Rühli, F.J. 2016. The sudden death of Alaric I (c. 370–410AD), the vanquisher of Rome: A tale of malaria and lacking immunity, European Journal of Internal Medicine. [Ahead of Print]

Mensing, S. A., Tunno, I., Sagnotti, L., Florindo, F., Noble, P., Archer, C., et al. 2015. 2700 years of Mediterranean environmental change in central Italy: synthesis of sedimentary and cultural records to interpret past impacts of climate on society, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 116(C), 72–94.

Sadori, L., Giraudi, C., Masi, A., Magny, M., Ortu, E., Zanchetta, G., & Izdebski, A. 2015. Climate,  environment and society in southern Italy during the last 2000 years. A review of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 1–16.

Li, Y.-F., Li, D.-B., Shao, H.-S., Li, H.-J., & Han, Y.-D. (2016). Plague in China 2014—All sporadic case report of pneumonic plague. BMC Infectious Diseases, 1–8.

Statskiewicz, A. (2007). The early medieval cemetery at Aschheim-Bajuwarenring: A Merovinigan population under the influence of pestilence? In Skeletal series and their socio-economic context (pp. 35–56).