Category Archives: archaeology

A winter’s worth of work

Its well into spring now and my blogging has perhaps hit an all time low. I have been working on a project that I will write about more later this year. I’ve been reading a lot about environmental history, not the usual material for this blog. Some of it is listed below. It’s a sample of the kind of thing that I need to be read to understand disease in the past. I think it will be worth it eventually even if pollen diagrams and geology diagrams are not very exciting. 

I do have quite a few ideas for new posts, so I will be back…soon. 

A sampling of some of my recent reading:

Büntgen, U., Myglan, V. S., Ljungqvist, F. C., McCormick, M., Di Cosmo, N., Sigl, M., et al. (2016). Cooling and societal change during the Late Antique Little Ice Age from 536 to around 660 AD. Nature Geoscience, 1–7. http://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2652

Mitchell, P. D. (2015). Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment. Advances in Parasitology (Vol. 90, pp. 389–420). Elsevier Ltd. http://doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2015.05.001

Mitchell, P. D. (2016). Human parasites in the Roman World: health consequences of conquering an empire. Parasitology, 1–11. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182015001651

Brogolio, G.P. 2015. Flooding in Northern Italy during the Early Middle Ages: resilience and adaption, in Post-Classical Archaeologies. 5: 47-68.

Galassi FM, Bianucci, R., Gorini, G., Giacomo M. Paganotti. G.M., Habicht, M.E., and Rühli, F.J. 2016. The sudden death of Alaric I (c. 370–410AD), the vanquisher of Rome: A tale of malaria and lacking immunity, European Journal of Internal Medicine. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2016.02.020 [Ahead of Print]

Mensing, S. A., Tunno, I., Sagnotti, L., Florindo, F., Noble, P., Archer, C., et al. 2015. 2700 years of Mediterranean environmental change in central Italy: synthesis of sedimentary and cultural records to interpret past impacts of climate on society, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 116(C), 72–94.

Sadori, L., Giraudi, C., Masi, A., Magny, M., Ortu, E., Zanchetta, G., & Izdebski, A. 2015. Climate,  environment and society in southern Italy during the last 2000 years. A review of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence, in Quaternary Science Reviews, 1–16.

Li, Y.-F., Li, D.-B., Shao, H.-S., Li, H.-J., & Han, Y.-D. (2016). Plague in China 2014—All sporadic case report of pneumonic plague. BMC Infectious Diseases, 1–8. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1403-8

Statskiewicz, A. (2007). The early medieval cemetery at Aschheim-Bajuwarenring: A Merovinigan population under the influence of pestilence? In Skeletal series and their socio-economic context (pp. 35–56).

CFP: Plague in diachronic and interdisciplinary perspective, EAA at Vilnius 2016

Call for Papers: Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius Aug. 31-Sept.1, 2016

Plague in diachronic and interdisciplinary perspective

Plague, an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, occurred in at least three major historical pandemics: the Justinianic Plague (6th to 8th century), the Black Death (from 14th century onwards), and the modern or Hong Kong Plague (19th to 20th century).Yet DNA from bronze age human skeleton has recently shown that the plague first emerged at least as early as 3000 BC. Plague is, as any disease, both a biological as well as a social entity. Different disciplines can therefore elucidate different aspects of the plague, which can lead to a better understanding of this disease and its medical and social implications.

The session shall address questions like

  • Which disciplines can contribute to the research on the plague? What are their methodological possibilities and limitations?
  • How can they work together in order to come to a more realistic and detailed picture of the plague in different times and regions?
  • Which ways had societies to react to the plague? How can they be studied or proved?
  •  Which commons and differences can be seen between the Justinianic Plague and later plague epidemics? Are there epidemiological characteristics that are essential and/or unique to plague?
  • What are possible implications of the pandemic spread and endemic occurrence of plague through the ages for the interpretation of historical and cultural phenomena?

We would like to invite researchers from the disciplines of archaeology, anthropology, biology, history, medicine and related subjects to present papers in our session.

Find more information on the EAA at Vilnius here.

Upload abstracts for this session here.

Author – Gutsmiedl-Schümann, Doris, Universität Bonn, Vor- und Frühgeschichtliche Archäologie, Bonn, Germany (Presenting author)

Co-author(s) – Kacki, Sacha, Anthropologie des Populations Passées et Présentes Université de Bordeaux, Pessac, France

Co-author(s) – Keller, Marcel, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany

Co-author(s) – Lee, Christina, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Topic – Science and Interdisciplinarity in Archaeology

Keywords: diachronic perspective, Plague

A Migration Age Anglo-Saxon Leper

Paleomicrobiology and isotopic analysis has the ability to completely change what we know of past infectious diseases. A study published this month on a fifth century Anglo-Saxon skeleton is one of the most complete I have read.

Lesions on skeletons found at Great Chesterfield in Essex, England, suggested possible leprosy. To confirm this diagnosis, they chose one skeleton that is nearly complete and in good shape for further analysis.

Grave GC86 from Great Chesterford, excavated in a rescue archaeology operation in 1953-4.
Grave GC86 from Great Chesterford, excavated in a rescue archaeology operation in 1953-4. (Inskip et al, 2015)

The skeleton (GC96) shown to the right is of a 25 to 35-year-old male buried in modestly furnished grave in an area of the cemetery with other visibly disabled people. Radiocarbon dating places these remains at AD 415-545, and thus Migration Age for the Anglo-Saxons. The Great Chesterford cemetery is located roughly in an approximate border area between the kingdom of the East Saxons and East Angles at the site of a ford of the River Cam (or Granta) downriver from Cambridge. He was buried with a slender knife secured by a belt with an oval buckle. Over his left shoulder, a spear and a conical ferrule were found.  Lesions consistent with lepromatous leprosy were found on the lower legs with extensive remodeling of the right foot. A bronze shoelace tag found near the right foot suggests the diseased foot covered with a shoe.  Given the lesions found on the foot and lower legs, the ferrule may have capped a walking staff. His facial bones were missing losing a common, distinctive site of leprosy lesions. The disorganized and rough appearance of new bone growth suggest that the lesion was active at the time of death.

Profile of the mycolic acids extracted from the indicated bones.
Profile of the mycolic acids extracted from the indicated bones. (Inskip et al, 2015)

Selections of bone were taken and powdered to extract aDNA and for lipid analysis. Mycobacterium species that cause leprosy and tuberculosis have distinctive lipid profiles that have been successfully extracted and identified by archaeological remains in the past. Their analysis of lipids from the bones confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium leprae and excluded the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  The aDNA analysis confirmed identified the presence of Mycobacterium leprae strain 3I-1, that has been previously found in later medieval England, Denmark and Sweden. Inskip et al (2015) suggest a possible Scandinavian origin for the strain.  The VNTR analysis used to produce ‘genetic fingerprints’ shows that this strain of M. leprae is unique among other ancient isolates and should be useful in the comparative analysis of other early remains. Other remains in the same cemetery have similar lesions and will be investigated in the future.

Isotopic analysis of his tooth enamel provide an indication of childhood location and adult nutrition. Carbon analysis showed a diet of primarily C3 plants, consistent with southern Britain. Analysis of oxygen and strontium isotopes suggest he did not spend his childhood in the area of Great Chesterford.

The combination of the two isotopes gives his best probable origin to be between north-central France and the north-central Germany, in other words, the region of the Anglo-Saxon homeland. A continental origin coupled with the dating range between 415 and 545 suggests that he was part of the migration of the peoples who later called themselves Anglo-Saxons. He was likely no more Scandinavian than any of the other migration era ‘English’. This is further supported by a relatively high level of leprosy (by osteological analysis) in medieval city of Schleswig, the very area where the Angles are most specifically located. Further analysis of migration era remains should refine the origins of this strain of leprosy and determine its frequency.

Reference:

Inskip, S. A., Taylor, G. M., Zakrzewski, S. R., Mays, S. A., Pike, A. W. G., Llewellyn, G., et al. (2015). Osteological, Biomolecular and Geochemical Examination of an Early Anglo-Saxon Case of Lepromatous Leprosy. PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0124282. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124282.s001

Kristina Killgrove, 14 May 2015 “Earliest Case of Leprosy in Britain reveals Scandinavian Origins of the Disease”, Forbes.com

SIMON MAYS, SONIA R. ZAKRZEWSKI, SARAH A. INSKIP, STEPHANIE WRIGHT and JOANNA R. SOFAER. (2015) Anglo-Saxon concepts of dis/ability: placing disease at Great Chesterford in its wider context. Poster at The 84th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.